The Keel is a heavily reinforced spine which runs along the bottom of the ship, through the centre. The keel is the first section of a ship that is built, since it serves as a foundation. The framework for the hull - the body of the ship, is attached to the keel.
The hull is the most visible part on a ship. The hull provides shelter to everyone on board and makes the ship buoyant.
A rudder is what is used to steer the ship, it is secured outside the hull at the back of the ship.
The masts of a sailing ship are normally tall and vertical; these are here to support the sails. Larger ships have a number of masts. Each mast is named differently, for example the "Main mast" and "Foremast".
The Forepeak is the part of the hold (the space below the lowermost deck of a ship) which is nearest the front of the ship, at the ship's narrowest section.
A Jibboom is a metal rod that supports the head sail of a ship which makes it sail more easily.
I hope this has helped you on your basic understanding of ships. Please feel free to share any other information about parts of ships you may know.